The scientific name Phalaenopsis comes from the Latin Phalaenopsis and belongs to the genus of epiphytic, rarely lithophytic plants from the Orchid family. This species is most widely represented in the territory of Southeast Asia, as well as in the Philippines and in the northeastern part of Australia. In nature, it is most often found on humid plains and in a mountain forest. A significant part of representatives of the genus, as well as hybrid plants obtained with their use, have become popular in indoor and greenhouse floriculture.
Exotic lovers often grow Phalaenopsis pink, as well as Phalaenopsis mini and Phalaenopsis Stuart. There are numerous clubs for Phalaenopsis orchid lovers where they can give tips and advice on how to grow this marvelous flower with your own hands. Often you can see the Phalaenopsis flower in the botanical garden.
The flower owes its name to two Greek words: phalania or "night butterfly" and opsis or "similarity." The flowers look similar to fluttering velvet butterflies, which is clearly distinguishable in the photo of the plant.
An extensive family of the Vandov tribe includes about forty species. Representatives of the genus are monopodial type plants with a very shortened stem part and a wide view of leathery leaves. Orchid Phalaenopsis grows exclusively up.
The sinuses in the leaf space are equipped with an airy type of roots and peduncles. The adult Phalaenopsis orchid most often has six evergreen leaves, the length of which can vary from five to thirty centimeters. Some types of orchids are characterized by the location of a beautiful marble pattern on the leaves.
A distinctive feature of axillary peduncles is the length and branching. A significant part of the species have a large number of very large and attractive flowers resembling a butterfly shape.
The aerial roots of Phalaenopsis have a thick layer of velamen, and sometimes the roots are characterized by flattening and a greenish tint due to the presence of a certain amount of chlorophyll.
Currently, the following plant species are widely known:
- the flowers amabilis and bellina possess the most powerful and pleasant aroma that sets them apart from other plants of this genus;
- the flowers corningiana and gigantea characterized by a weak and slightly sweet aroma;
- the flowers lueddemanniana have a very strong and pleasant aroma;
- the flowers mannii and mariae practically have no aroma, it is very weakly expressed;
- the flowers modesta have a strong and very pleasant aroma;
- the flowers pulchra and reichenbachiana characterized by the presence of a musty smell;
- the flowers schilleriana have an aroma that is pronounced exclusively in the last weeks of flowering plants;
- the flowers speciosa and stuartiana do not have a pronounced aroma;
- the flowers sumatrana and tetraspsis belong to the number of flowers characterized by a strong aroma;
- the flowers venosa They have a sharp and very unpleasant odor.
Flowers are distinguished not only by the degree of aroma, but also by the structure, the description of which is very important, if necessary, to make the right choice of the suitable species or variety.
Phalaenopsis: home care
By and large, orchids do not differ significantly from any flowering plants grown at home in their structure. However, there are characteristic differences that are inherent exclusively to tropical epiphytes, which in recent years have won the special love of flower growers.
Phalaenopsis, along with Wanda, as well as Agrekkum and Aerangis, belong to the monopodial type orchids, which are characterized by upward growth. All newly appearing leaves are larger in size than the previous ones. An adult plant is characterized by the acquisition of sheet plates of the same size.
The roots of such orchids can grow completely randomly, and the appearance of roots on the stem is considered a variant of the norm. The main function of false orchid bulbs is the accumulation of nutrients, which allows the plant to survive in the formation of extreme conditions. The appearance of pseudobulbs becomes a manifestation of the alternation of excessively dry and wet seasons, which is characteristic of the natural habitats of epiphytes.
When growing at home, with the presence of decent care, the functional indicators of pseudobulbs decrease. But they are still responsible for the optimal use of any nutrients necessary for good growth and lush flowering. Roots are a very important organ of epiphytes, performing a significant number of functions. Orchids, by means of roots, are fixed in the substrate and retain verticality. The root system is actively involved along with the leaves in the process of photosynthesis.
The root system absorbs moisture and nutrients from air masses and plants. The root system is divided into:
- subordinate clause.
The adnexal roots can be formed in any part of the plant except the root system. Orchids of a monopodial species form subordinate roots on the stem part. A significant part of the orchid is characterized by the growth of a significant amount of aerial roots.
The white color of the root system is due to the coating of velamen, which includes dead cells filled with air. With the help of such parts, the plant stores moisture, which helps the plant survive in the dry seasons, and a similar layer serves as a protection against damage.
You may also be interested in an article about growing Phalaenopsis orchids at home.
Names and descriptions of varieties
Several varieties of this type of orchid are popular with flower growers, which are distinguished by abundant and lush flowering, and also easily tolerate home growing conditions:
Chilleriana is one of the most common varieties originating from the Philippines. Phalaenopsis Schiller has very interesting variegated leaves, which are characterized by the presence of a silver coating and dark spots merging into fancy strips. Hybrid Phalaenopsis comes precisely from this variety. Features that Phalaenopsis hybrid possesses are represented by a huge number of flowers from one peduncle. Phalaenopsis hybrid is a very bright representative, grown at home.
Philadelphia quite common and is a hybrid of Chilleriana and Stuart. Variety flowers do not differ in large sizes and have different colors. The prevailing color is a purple-pink hue. The plant has a luxurious appearance and ease of care.
Phalaenopsis amabilis or Pleasant
Amabilis characterized by the presence of large inflorescences. The plant has curved branches with the presence of 15-20 flowers in diameter of not more than ten centimeters. Flowers of shades of sakura, pink and lemon are found quite often, but white porcelain is considered the most common color.
Stuartiana similar in appearance to the variety Chilleriana. The peduncle is characterized by branching, and the flowers have red spots on the base and a specific lip pattern, which has a golden yellow or orange color with burgundy spots. The flowers are medium sized.
Lueddemanniana is a very interesting species, the flowering cascade of which lasts for a whole year. Small peduncles contain no more than seven small flowers. The delicate pink and purple color tone is combined with a very pleasant aroma.
Rosea many call micro or mini-grade. Such mini orchids are often found on the banks of the river, where they live and grow in natural conditions. A short peduncle of a miniature orchid is decorated with about twenty mini-flowers, the buds of which are opened one after another.
Sanderiana belongs to the category of the most rare and expensive species. Long peduncles lean down, and the color of the flowers can be varied. The green primary color of the leaves is complemented by dark spots in a similar color scheme.
Phalaenopsis cultivars are also popular with gardeners. Liodoro and phalaenopsis Royal Blue. The Royal Blue variety is characterized by the presence of two peduncles with blue flowers and bright green leaves. Royal Blue variety blooms two or three times a year, depending on how many nutrients are accumulated by the plant and how the plant is taken care of. Royal Phalaenopsis has a certain similarity with this plant.
Peloric flowers, which possess a broken gene for flower symmetry, enjoy some popularity. Many varieties are characterized by variegated or variegated leaves. Of particular interest Phalaenopsis black butterfly or "Black Prince" and Phalaenopsis golden beauty or Golden Beauty. A mix of these plants looks very attractive. In recent years, the appearance of mini- and midi-Phalaenopsis, multiflora hybrids, as well as Phalaenopsis Mini-Mark.
The breeding process can be performed in two versions.
By means of seeds, it turns out to breed new varieties and species. The method of propagation by seeds is used by breeders. It is not difficult to get seeds, however, to ensure that the orchid grows and blooms correctly is very difficult. Many order seeds from China for this purpose. However, such planting material is most often characterized by low quality.
Phalaenopsis division by children
Growth points at which the appearance of a baby can be observed are represented by leaf axils or sleeping buds on peduncles. Such growth points are called meristems. There are several ways to stimulate the formation of children in order to perform Phalaenopsis division. Most often, the placement of cut peduncles is carried out in closed transparent mini-greenhouses. The division of Phalaenopsis by children can be stimulated by a decrease in watering and a temperature drop, including cold and very warm stress indicators. Dividing Phalaenopsis by cutting peduncles into several parts with the presence of sleeping growth points.
Phalaenopsis is the most unpretentious plant of orchids that are grown in indoor floriculture. The plant forms flowers on an old peduncle and does not require pollination. New flower stalks are formed all year round. Growing is successful even for beginners, and temperature conditions should be in the range of eighteen to twenty-five degrees, which are easy to maintain at home.
Certain problems can create a lack of light. The main signs of insufficient lighting appear immediately, and the plant has sluggish leaves and peduncles. The use of the drug "Kornevin", which belongs to the category of biostimulants, and high-quality illumination of the plant can help correct this situation.