House and garden

Wine grape varieties: features and purpose


Making wine is a ritual that goes without grapes. Wine varieties differ in that they have smaller berries, while the juice content in the fruits is very high - up to 80%. The smell of fruit is fragrant, the color is saturated, tasteful.

Feature of wine grape varieties

These varieties are used directly to create wine and juices. Despite the fact that their taste is average, there is something that makes the technical fruits in demand. These are two distinguishing features:

  • a small amount of pulp in the fruit,
  • high juice content in them and a small mass of berries.

How to make wine

The best raw materials for wine production are grapes. It is inexpensive, and the final product is excellent. Most grape musts are sweet, but sugar is still used to make the drink.

White wine manufacturing technology

The production of the drink can be carried out from red, white and pink varieties. Berries should have a high sugar content and medium acidity.

The production process itself includes several stages:

  • good fruits are picked without damage and rot;
  • juice is squeezed out of them;
  • waiting time until the juice settles;
  • sulfur dioxide is introduced into the juice - 1 gram per 10 liters;
  • fermentation of the drink occurs;
  • at the end of fermentation, the wine is separated from the yeast;
  • liquid sedimentation and sediment removal are performed;

The technology of making rose wine

The production technology of the product is not simple. In this case, it is important not to allow the color of the drink to become saturated, and to prevent the oxidation of wine. As raw materials for the preparation, pink, red and white grapes are taken.

Red varieties can be:

  • with colored juice - Odessa Black (Odesskiy chernyy)Saperavi (Saperavi);
  • with unpainted juice - Cabernet Sauvignon (Cabernet Sauvignon)Mattress (Matrasa).

Among the features of production, it is worth highlighting that the extraction should be carried out extremely carefully, so that twigs and bones do not penetrate into the wort. After wringing in the wort, to ensure a pink tint, the skin of the fruit is left for 3-4 hours. Then it is removed and the technology of making white wine is repeated.

Red wine production technology

The drink is made from black and dark red varieties - Merlot (Merlot), Cabernet, Saperavi. Anthocyanins, the substances contained in the skin of the fruit, give color to the finished product. The manufacturing process is characterized in that the seeds from the berries should not be removed during crushing.

A crushed mixture of grapes, their skin and seeds is called a pulp. Ferment is added to it, consisting of wine yeast in a ratio of 2% of the total mass. Then the resulting mixture is stirred and placed in a container for fermentation. The container itself is covered with a sheet of plywood.

Wine grapes

In the process of making wine, the wort should be mixed periodically. Active fermentation should go within 3 days. If everything is done correctly, by the end of fermentation the wort will acquire a rich red color and grape aroma. If there is no such result, the pulp should be left to ferment for a few more days. Then it is separated from the wort, wine is squeezed and mixed with must. The resulting drink is bottled in a container and left for a couple of months to acquire a good taste.

Popular grape varieties for white wine

The aroma, taste and color of the wine directly depend on the variety and type of grape from which it is prepared. Not only the characteristics of the berries are important, but also what the care of the vine was like.

Grade nameThe main characteristics of the variety and the drink from itBerry quality
FurmintThe Hungarian variety, from which quality dessert and table wines are made, drinks are obtained strong 16-degree, the color of the wine is goldenThe average sugar content of berries is about 20% per 100 ml, juice - 78%, acidity - 8.1 g / l
SauvignonUsed to create table wine, the percentage of alcohol in the drink is 13%, the aroma of the drink is similar to the flavor of gooseberriesJuice content in fruits - 77%, fruit peel is dense, sugar content - 18% per 100 ml, acidity - from 6.4 g / l
MuscatIt is used for the production of quality dessert wines, the smell is grapeThe grapes are round, medium in size, the flesh is tender, the sugar content is up to 30%
RieslingMoody variety, ripens for a long time, Riesling wines can be stored for a long time, the aroma of the drink is orange, green apple, fried breadThe berries are medium, round, white-greenish, the skin is thin, the flesh is sweet, the taste is harmonious
Pinot BlancUsed to create table wine, the taste of the drink has a touch of apple, wine is produced in Italy and FranceThe berries are round, greenish, have a pleasant taste, the acid content in the fruits is low.
ChardonnayFrom the Chardonnay variety, wine is produced in America, Russia, and France. The taste of the drink is pleasant, with a touch of apple, pear, vanillaFruits are small, roundish, greenish-yellow, few seeds
Valentina (Valentina)Used to create table wine, the taste of the drink is harmonious with a hint of sage, there is a scent of muscatGrapes are large, elongated, golden, tender flesh, few seeds

We also offer you to learn about the features of growing grapes in a greenhouse.

The best grape varieties for red wine

A variety of varieties are suitable for creating red wine. Their fruits vary in taste and some other characteristics.

Grade name

The main characteristics of the variety and the drink from it

Berry quality
Pinot noirGrown in Burgundy, France and Switzerland, the wine does not lend itself to blending, and the quality of berries depends on weather conditions, the aroma of the drink is floral or coffeeHigh acidity, average tannin content, medium-sized berries, round, juicy pulp
Cabernet SauvignonIt is one of the most popular in the world; the taste is tart, full, heavy wine, vanilla or fruity aromaFruits are round, dark blue, medium in size, juicy pulp, seed content - from 1 to 3 pcs.
ZinfandelCroatian, actively used in California for making wines, the aroma of a drink is floral or fruityThe acidity and content of tannins in fruits is high, sugar content is 30%, ripening is uneven
SangioveseItalian grape variety is used to create various wines, the aroma of the drink is sweet, vanilla, the taste has a bouquet of currants, plums, coffeeThe acidity is high, the content of tannins is average, the ripening of berries is later, the skin of the fruits is thin
SyrahIt is actively used for making red wines, grown in Chile, Argentina, France, wines from the Syrah variety are saturated, the aroma is currant, plum, black pepperThe tannin content in the fruits is high, the fruit yield is low, the ripening period is medium
TempranilloThe Spanish grape variety is grown in the Pyrenees, the taste profile of the drink obtained from the grape is neutral, the aroma is cherry, plum, tobaccoAcidity varies, the average tannin content, the berries are small, the sugar content is low
MerlotA common grape variety to create red wine, grown in France, the drink turns dark purple, the aroma of the wine is fruityRipen quickly, the content of tannins is high, the pulp is juicy, the skin is durable

Grapes to create brandy

Cognac is a strong alcoholic drink that is made on the basis of ethyl alcohol and grapes. The technology for creating a drink is directly related to viticulture. To create cognac, various varieties of culture are used.

Name of grape varietyFeatures of the variety and the drink from itCharacteristics of berries
AligoteFrench, used as cognac material, the taste of brandy obtained from the Aligote variety, soft, color - with a straw tintRipening early, the shape of the fruit is round, the color is greenish, the flesh is juicy
Uni BlancThe Italian variety used to create brandy, the drink is light and easy to taste.Medium, round, white, firm skin, fleshy flesh
ColombardFrench variety used to create Borderian cognac with a great aroma and normal acidityWhite, round, medium size, dense skin, juicy pulp
Folle BlancheThe first grape variety used to create cognac, the drink is soft and aromatic, the variety is used to create drinks by such well-known houses as Tesseron and Leopold GourmelMedium, rounded, greenish, waxy coating present
SemillonA white variety actively used to create cognac as a blend.The skin is thin, the flesh is melting, the shape is round, the sizes are medium, the color is golden

Grapes - the main raw material component involved in the creation of wines and cognacs. But to get the finished product, you should familiarize yourself with the technology of its creation and choose the right kind of culture. This is the only way to create a delicious and high-quality alcoholic drink with your own hands.

How to make homemade wine