Most often, hazel belongs to the genus of shrubs, but there are representatives that grow to the size of a tall tree. In the wild, the plant forms a dense undergrowth and is known as common hazel (corylus avellana). A description of the shape of the leaves, similar to bream, formed the basis of the name of this plant.
Where does hazel grow and what does it look like
Despite the fact that Asia Minor is considered the homeland of hazel, it is common in America, Canada, the Caucasus and central Europe. In the wild, this shrub is called hazelnut and grows in the Perm Territory and the Southern Urals.
Hazel belongs to the hazel family. The leaf plates are large and serrated along the edge, which are painted in red in autumn. The brown bark of the shrub has transverse stripes, and a powerful rhizome penetrates the soil to a great depth.
Hazel blossoms in early spring before the leaves begin to bloom. Then long earrings are formed (from 5 to 7 cm). At the end of the summer period, the fruit ripens - an oval nut, which is located in a green cushion.
The healing properties of hazel bark and leaves
Since ancient times, the plant has been used in folk and traditional treatment. All parts of hazel contain a set of vitamins, micro and macro elements, easily digestible proteins and fats, necessary for the human body during the recovery period or as a prophylactic.
The composition of the leaves includes the following components:
- glycoside myricitroside;
- essential oils;
How does hazel blossom
The content of binders and tannins, betulin, a coloring yellow component, and lignoceryl alcohol in the cortex makes it suitable for consumption.
A drink made from leaves helps maintain immunity, has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilating properties. They can be brewed in medicinal fees or together with ordinary tea.
The use of infusions from bark and leaves has a positive effect in the fight against varicose veins, urolithiasis and inflammation of the prostate gland.
The composition and benefits of the fruits of hazel forest
In addition to high nutritional and energy values, the fruits of hazel are rich in minerals and vitamins, as well as fats, which form its bulk, proteins and amino acids that protect the circulatory system.
The fruits of the hazel beloved by all are especially useful for the growing child's body, but they will not hinder the elderly to maintain strength and health. In addition, the use of hazelnuts helps to cleanse the body, freeing it from toxins.
Nuts are actively used in cooking for preparing many dishes and baking. But despite the great benefits of the plant, in order to avoid allergic reactions, it is necessary to observe moderation in its use.
The use of common hazel in folk medicine
The content of beneficial components in the plant allows its use in home therapy, including grass and fruits. A decoction from the cortex is used in the pathology of the circulatory system. An infusion is prepared from the foliage, and the seeds are ground with water or egg white. Since the seeds have a wonderful taste characteristic, they can be used in food, both raw and slightly fried.
To prepare a decoction, it is necessary to grind dry leaves and bark, pour 300 ml of boiling water and put in a water bath. After a third of an hour, remove and strain the solution. A decoction can be prepared only from the bark without adding leaves. Take 100 ml twice a day for diseases of the liver, kidneys, hypertension and diarrhea.
The infusion is prepared as follows: pour 2 tbsp. tablespoons of 500 ml of boiling water in a well-closed container. The next day, strain the composition. The bark can be replaced with leaves. For this, 3 tbsp. tablespoons of fresh raw materials should be poured with a glass of vodka, insist 15 days in a warm place and strain. The infusion is useful for intestinal diseases, anemia, vitamin deficiencies and pathologies of the circulatory system. You need to drink 50 ml before meals.
To prepare a decoction of plusi, you should brew 20 gr. dry raw materials with water (200 ml), boil for 15 minutes and filter after 2 hours. Use with diarrhea.
To combat fever, urolithiasis and colitis, it is necessary to mix the crushed nuts in equal proportions with water. Consume 50 ml three times a day.
Features of growing hazel
Collection, preparation and storage of medicinal raw materials
In home therapy, all aerial parts of the bush are used. Young leaves are recommended to be collected in May and dried in an open place, well protected from direct sunlight (under a canopy, in the attic).
Hazel bark should be harvested in spring or autumnand dry in the same way as the leaves. After fruit ripening (September - October), they are picked and placed in a special dryer, where they can dry at a temperature of 60 - 70 degrees. Shelf life of leaves and fruits is 1 year, and bark - 2 years.
Growing hazel in a summer cottage
Hazel grows not only in the wild, but also in suburban areas. In addition, it does not cause much trouble when growing. No wonder Italians compare it with a plant for the lazy. Depending on the variety, hazel can reach up to 2 - 5 m in height. Using pruning, the host optionally forms the shape of a bush.
Choosing a place in the garden and planting features
The shrub prefers space and good lighting, so it is recommended to choose the appropriate place for planting it. The composition of the soil can be any, but not very saline.. Also, the plant does not like sandy or swampy soil. It is advisable to plant the bush in neutral or loose and slightly acidic soil.
Before embarking on a landing, it is recommended to check the depth of groundwater, the level of which should not exceed 1.5 m. When choosing a suitable place, it must be taken into account that there are no floods in the spring, otherwise they will flood the plantings.
To avoid the death of the plant, experts advise to adhere to several rules when breeding it:
- The best time to plant: autumn and early spring.
- It is important to leave a gap between the seedlings of at least 5 m, since the bushes do not require further transplanting for 50-60 years.
- When planting bushes in rows, the distance between each row should be at least 5 - 6 m.
- In order for the hazel to bear fruit, it is necessary to plant at least three seedlings, since they do not form fruits alone.
Before planting seedlings, it is necessary to prepare indentations measuring 70x70 cm, and do this in advance, no later than 1.5 months before planting. Then apply fertilizer: a mixture of superphosphate and humus.
The root system of seedlings should be treated with a dung-clay mash and place each bush in a hole prepared for it so that the root neck does not rise above ground level more than 3 cm. Then pour each bush with water (1 bucket) and mulch using dry sawdust peat or grass. The finished seedling needs to be cut at a distance of 20 cm from the ground and tied to a support peg.
General rules for caring for hazel in the garden
To get a good harvest, the shrub requires easy maintenance, which includes:
- Watering. It is especially important to monitor the condition of the soil during the dry period, otherwise the plant may die. The amount of water depends on the age of the hazel, but it should be borne in mind that it does not tolerate waterlogging. During active fruit growth, watering can be increased.
- Top dressing. In the case of seedlings growing in soil rich in microelements, a small amount of nitrogen fertilizers should be used. It is recommended to use organics, for example, slurry. Before the growing season, it is necessary to feed the tree with phosphorus and potassium, and in the period of ovary growth, urea. In the fall, wood ash will come in handy.
- Mulching. To avoid quick drying of the soil, it is necessary to update the mulch.
- Loosening. When removing weeds, the topsoil should be loosened, being careful not to damage the root system of young seedlings.
- Shelter for the winter. Hazel can be protected in two ways: cover with a spanbond or bend to the ground and cover with a spruce. Adult plants can not be covered.
Useful properties of hazel
In order to promote a plentiful crop and protect the crop from disease, timely crop pruning is necessary.
After the brow has turned brown, harvesting begins. Usually this period falls at the beginning of autumn. The ripened fruits self-crumble. They must be collected and thoroughly dried for 2 to 3 weeks. Poor drying threatens to cause nuts to mold. The finished product is able to be stored for 2 years without losing taste and useful properties.