Until recently, sweet peppers were grown only in the southern regions. There were very few varieties on the shelves. However, today everything has changed dramatically. Coming to the store for seeds of sweet pepper, the eyes of the buyer run up from the variety of varieties and hybrids. In the picture they all look equally attractive, but this is a marketing ploy. What can we really expect, and which varieties for open ground to choose?
Growing sweet peppers in the open field
Pepper is native to Central America, which means that this culture is extremely thermophilic. Biologically, the culture is called paprika, which is divided into two types:
- sweet (today we will talk about him);
Bitter in all varieties contains the substance capsaicin, it is this substance that gives the piquant taste to the pepper. All sweet peppers are sometimes called Bulgarian. It doesn't matter, there are a lot of varieties and hybrids. And if today there are not so many hot peppers on the shelves, then there are plenty of sweet varieties.
It is not possible to grow the latter type outdoors in Russia everywhere. The fact is that the vegetative period of pepper is quite long, and the summer in most regions of our country is short. It is for this reason that they prefer to grow seedlings at home, and then they plant the plants in open ground. This method is considered the most preferable. For central Russia, it is better to give preference to early varieties. They are also great for warmer regions. Let's talk about which varieties are preferable at the moment.
The best early varieties for open ground
To choose the best variety, you need to identify the qualities that are important specifically to you. As a rule, for every gardener or summer resident, the following are important:
- ripening period;
- resistance to viruses, diseases and low temperatures;
- taste qualities.
Disease resistance can only be achieved by choosing hybrids. Experienced gardeners have long understood this, therefore, according to statistics, about 80% of hybrids are sold on the market today. However, the varieties also grow well.
Let's talk about early and early maturing sweet peppers that can be grown outdoors. To do this, we present a list of varieties and hybrids:
- hybrid "Pinocchio";
- hybrid "Mercury";
- grade "Health";
- grade "Bogdan";
- variety "Vesper";
- grade "Firstborn of Siberia";
- grade "Meaty 7";
- grade "Ivanhoe";
- grade "Annushka";
- hybrid "Maria";
- variety "Barin";
- grade "Alyosha Popovich";
- grade "Junga";
- hybrid "Blondie";
- Lilac Bell hybrid;
- variety "Victoria";
- grade "Bogatyr".
There are a lot of early maturing varieties for open ground. Let's compare these in a special table. According to the basic data, it will be easy to understand which one is more suitable for growing in your area.
Below is a table with data for each hybrid or variety listed above. We will only touch on the basic qualities that are important for every gardener. All varieties are tasty, juicy, sweet types.
|Variety / hybrid name||Ripening in days||Resistance to viruses and diseases||Description||Productivity, in kilograms per 1 square meter|
|Ivanhoe||early maturing, 125-135 depending on the thermal regime||cold-resistant, resistant to many diseases||medium-sized bush, fruits are also medium-sized||6 (outdoors), in the greenhouse above|
|Alesha Popovich||early, 120-125||to wither||thin-walled medium-sized peppers, medium-sized bush, openwork||4,6|
|Annushka||early, 105-117||to TMV and major diseases||medium peppers are very juicy||7|
|Barin||early ripe, 120||to verticillus (wilting), tobacco mosaic virus||can be planted quite densely, up to 10 plants per square meter||8-10|
|Blondie||early ripening, ripening period only 60 days||to major diseases||peppers are strong, rather large, up to 200 grams||5-7|
|Bohdan||early ripening, 97-100||tolerates minor drought, disease resistant||large peppers, bright yellow||to 10|
|Bogatyr||mid-season, up to 135||resistant to cold and fading||fruits of green or red color are medium, the plant is powerful, high||3-7|
|Pinocchio||ultra-early ripening, 88-100||resistant to major viruses and diseases||elongated red peppers, sprawling plant, high||7-10|
|Vesper||early ripening, 108||the tobacco mosaic virus is not scary, some diseases||fruits are small, elongated, the bush almost does not overgrow with foliage||5,5-7|
|Health||ultra-ripe, 78-87||to top rot, tolerates well the absence of the sun for a long period||the plant is tall, you will need to tie it up, small peppers are very tasty||4-5|
|Mercury||ultra-early ripening, 89-100||to top rot and tobacco mosaic virus||a hybrid with large fruits, a tall bush, so he definitely needs a garter||7-8|
|Meaty 7||early ripening, 140||to tobacco mosaic virus and major diseases||small juicy pyramidal peppers||10-14|
|Firstborn of Siberia||early maturing, up to 120 maximum||resistant to tobacco mosaic, top rot||fruits are small in size, the plant itself also, however, gives a large yield||9-12|
|cabin boy||early, 105-115||to bad weather, some diseases||the bush is rather low, the peppers are medium conical||8-10|
|Lilac Bell||ultra-early ripening, 60-65||disease resistant||fruits are medium with a very thick wall, the plant bears fruit well||9-10|
|Victoria||early, 115||to black mold and lower air temperatures||the fruits are small, but very tasty, this variety is loved for its resistance to weather changes||5-7|
|Maria||early, 103||the main diseases are not terrible for the hybrid||compact bush, gives a rich harvest||4-7|
Most often, attention is paid to the yield and taste of the pepper variety. Its main purpose is fresh use, as well as for canning. That is why not only the color of the fruit is so important, but also its aroma.
A few more varieties are presented in our video.
The residents of the Urals and Siberia should pay special attention to ultra-early ripening varieties, they are the earliest. Ripen after two months, if you count from the first shoots.
All varieties shown in the table can be safely grown outdoors, if weather conditions permit. Below we will talk about the most common growing method - seedlings. It is advisable to use it both in the middle zone and in the south of the country.
Today, few people are engaged in self-harvesting of seeds, saving time, summer residents prefer to buy ready-made sowing material in bags. This is very convenient, one package is enough for a fairly large plot of the garden, the seeds pass in advance the stage of pre-sowing disinfection, which favorably affects the yield.
Large fruits, as a rule, appear in mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties of pepper, they reach a mass of 240 and 300 grams, the bush is always tall, but it is problematic to grow them in central Russia, since the summer is short and the sun is quite small.
When it comes to the difference between cultivars and hybrids, it is very important to understand the following:
- adult hybrids are really more resistant and give a good result in the form of a rich harvest;
- the yield of varietal peppers is often lower, but at the same time in the growth stage they are not as capricious as hybrids;
- everything that is indicated on the packaging in the context of agrotechnical features must be followed, otherwise you risk being left without a crop.
Tips for choosing sweet pepper seeds are presented in the video. They will allow you to understand many of the nuances of planting pepper in open ground in central Russia. It is in these regions that the most difficulties arise with the cultivation of early varieties of pepper.
Growing early sweet peppers
As mentioned above, sweet pepper is a rather demanding culture. It grows wild in the tropics and subtropics. Agree, our weather conditions are completely different in most of the country.
For those who are just starting to grow bell peppers, we can advise you not to pay attention to the colorful photos on packages with seeds. Today there are fruits with interesting colors, for example, black, purple, orange. All of them can be moody, and bad experiences can ruin the overall experience of growing a crop.
At the very first stage, preference is given to traditional varieties, for example, "Aivengo" or "Bogatyr".
Compliance with all requirements is not the desire of the seed producer, but the harsh conditions in which a thermophilic crop must be grown. So, sweet pepper loves:
- illumination 12 hours a day (especially at the stage of seedling growth);
- heat (it is advisable to set the temperature regime at + 22-32 degrees);
- heated soil (+ 12-15 degrees, not less);
- watering with warm water and spraying;
- protection against drafts;
- looseness of the soil and its moderate acidity;
- fertilizing with fertilizers.
Important! Adult sweet pepper plants can adapt to low light conditions. At the same time, they begin to bear fruit faster.
Growing sweet peppers outdoors can be compared to growing tomatoes. The cultures are very similar in this respect. So, let's divide the growing process into several stages:
- pre-sowing seed preparation;
- growing seedlings;
- transplanting ready-made seedlings into open ground;
- care for adult plants.
Let's move on to the first stage and describe it in as much detail as possible.
Presowing seed preparation
Early varieties of peppers for outdoor use are selected in winter. The period of planting seeds depends on the period of fruit ripening. The gardener should know when the danger of frost will disappear in his region, and it will be possible to plant seedlings in open ground. The growth period of the pepper is quite long. For example, those varieties that ripen for 105-110 days are spent on window sills for 60-80 days. During this time, they stretch and get stronger.
Pepper seeds are pre-sowing preparation. It is necessary in order to accelerate the germination of the seed. Also, soil is prepared in advance for future seedlings.
Pepper seeds are medium in size, usually golden in color, rounded. They are poured out of the bag onto a paper base and examined. If there is a frank marriage among the material (cracked seeds, opened, not fully formed), you can immediately throw them away.
The rest are placed in very warm water (+50 degrees) and kept in it for at least 5 hours. From time to time, the water is drained and replaced with a new one to keep the medium warm. After this time, the seeds are placed in a damp cloth and left for 2-3 days. After that, they hatch in the ground in 24-48 hours. If this is not done, seedlings appear after a week or more.
Advice! Grow seedlings in special cells, as the pepper does not tolerate transplanting well.
Two types of soil can be used for seedlings, however, the crop requirements for the soil will have to be taken into account:
- it should be loose;
- it should be moderately acidic (6.0-7.0);
- the soil should be rich in organic matter.
Pepper will not grow in heavy soils. This is also taken into account when transplanting plants into open ground.
So, you need to choose one of two soil:
- high-quality store.
A bad mixture will negatively affect the seedlings. You can prepare the mixture yourself in this way: take a bucket of humus, add sand and earth to it in a 2: 1: 1 ratio. It is good to add a glass of ash, pour everything over with a liter or two of water and boil. Seeds are planted in warm soil.
Since sweet pepper seedlings grow for a long time, many gardeners plant them either in random order or in separate cups.
Pepper seedlings grow well at + 25-27 degrees, at night they can be transferred to a cooler place, hardening. Avoid drafts. Watering is carried out only with water at room temperature. Do not allow the soil to dry out, but you do not need to fill it, otherwise the "black leg" will damage immature plants.
Transplanting ready-made seedlings into open ground
Transplanting seedlings into open ground can be carried out when it gets warmer outside the window. This is done under certain conditions. You should not rush to transfer:
- it may even bloom;
- seedlings should be 20 centimeters high;
- leaves should be at least 10 pieces.
A warm, but not hot day is chosen for transplantation. It is best to plant peppers in the afternoon. If there are single flowers on the seedlings, they can be removed. Overgrown peppers will hurt for a long time in the open field.
When transplanting, they act carefully: the seedlings are removed from the glass and placed in the finished well. You do not need to press the plant with force. The root system of the pepper is very tender.
The planting site is the southern part of the garden, protected from the wind from all directions.
Advice! If you are growing several early peppers, plant them at a distance from each other. This is especially true for the cultivation of spicy and sweet varieties. The fact is that pepper is a self-pollinated plant, it easily transfers the taste of one variety to another.
The planting pattern is determined by requirements, which can be examined on the packaging. That is why it is so important not to throw it away, but to sign the seedlings by all means.
Before planting, the soil is dug up, a disinfecting solution of copper sulfate is introduced in a week (a tablespoon of the substance per bucket). In the fall, organic matter is introduced into the beds. You can not grow peppers in those beds where they were planted:
Can be planted after cucumbers, zucchini, squash. It is impossible to deepen the seedlings. Moreover, the less mild the climate in your area, the higher the garden bed should be.
Adult plant care
All care comes down to:
- loosening the soil;
- timely watering;
- I make top dressing.
Watering is carried out as the soil dries out. At the same time, it is impossible to create drought. From time to time, if there is very little rain, the plants are watered from a watering can from above, as if washing the foliage. Loosening must be done regularly, but carefully so as not to damage the root system.
As far as fertilization is concerned, it is a good idea to do it twice or thrice a season. Pepper loves phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen (except for potassium chloride).
The feeding scheme is as follows:
- the first is carried out in 10-14 days by ambassadors of planting seedlings in open ground;
- the second - after the formation of ovaries;
- the third - two weeks after the second.
This is the optimal scheme. Sweet pepper will react very actively to such feeding.
If you follow all the rules, the early varieties of pepper will give a bountiful harvest. Watering and feeding will have a beneficial effect on the taste of sweet fruits. There is nothing difficult in growing them.