Each country house has a number of necessary tools for different works. To build a house, chop wood or cut meat, an ax is required. It can be purchased at the store or made independently. A purchased tool may be uncomfortable or unreliable, and this is unsafe. Do-it-yourself tool is particularly convenient and reliable. Before you make an ax with your own hands at home, you need to know what the ax looks like, what parts it consists of, and decide on its purpose.
Types of Axes
The tool is usually classified according to the type of handle.
- Hunter. The tool is loved by hunters, fishers and tourists. Lightweight compact hatchet, which is easy to chop dry firewood for fire or to prepare a log cabin for a hut. In addition, it is convenient for them to carve a small beast caught on the hunt.
- Woodcutter. It is often used for chopping wood, which is why it is the most popular tool in the household. It has a two-handed handle. Suitable for cutting trees with thin trunks.
- Lumberjack. The tool is designed for cutting trees and firewood. Ax with a wide blade, held with two hands due to the long handle.
- Ermak. Multifunctional mid-size product with a single handle. Due to the lack of linkage, working with an ax requires a lot of effort. The tool is lightweight, so you can take it with you on hikes.
- A carpenter. The ax is used when cutting bushes, processing and harvesting logs, as well as for chopping firewood. You can hold the tool with two or one hand.
- Universal Central Russian. The ax has two names: Central Russian and taiga. A strong blade allows you to cut through taiga glades, cut carcasses of animals and split logs of large sizes. Thanks to a convenient long handle, the tool is held with two hands.
- Viking. This is a two-handed, outwardly massive ax with a huge metal blade. In ancient times, the Vikings used it in battles. Over time, he transformed into a secure household equipment.
In addition to the main axes, there are tools designed for special work. These include: cleaver, joiner, large carpentry, sculptural ax, as well as curly tools and an ax for concave surfaces.
- Joiner. The tool allows you to make various notches and figured processing of the finished product. This is possible thanks to the semicircular blade.
- Cleaver. The main function of the ax is to prepare the product for a finer finish. Suitable for chopping thick and powerful logs. The heavy tool has a conical shape.
- Carpenter's universal. Used to separate the trunk and roughing wood. It is easy for them to trim a piece of wood and give it the desired shape. They have different weights.
- Figured. The work of the curly ax can be found on some houses in the village. In ancient times, village houses were decorated with curly platbands that were made with this tool. The hatchet consists of a heel with a sharp tip and a straight toe. This configuration allows you to engage in woodcarving.
- For excavation. Only a good specialist can create recesses on products with a carpentry ax. But to make a concave surface and precisely adjust its dimensions is easier with a tool specially designed for such work.
- Sculptural. The tool is intended for the manufacture of large jewelry made of wood and various sculptures. The ax is equipped with a curved blade. For convenience, the tool blade is made both under the right and under the left hand.
Ax components: hatchet, metal blade and wedges. How easy and convenient it will be to work with the tool, it depends on the length and shape of its handle, called a hatchet. Consider how to make it right and a suitable size. To do this, you need to select the material and cut out the workpiece according to the template.
Material selection. Not every wood species is suitable for tool production. Oak, maple, birch and ash are the best material from which you can make a high-quality handle for a knife or ax. The tool cannot be made from fresh material, since over time the wood will dry out, deform and cease to hold in the eye. Therefore, you need to do the procurement of material in advance. Harvesting of selected wood begins to be done in early autumn. For drying, the material is left to be stored in a dark, dry room. Drying lasts from one year to five years. The whole process should proceed naturally and cannot be accelerated.
- Template preparation. To make the tool suitable sizes, you need to make a hatchet template. Do-it-yourself drawings are designed on a cardboard template and transferred to the wood on one side. Then the same thing is done on the back of the wood. How long to make a pen, it depends on the growth and strength of the employee. The standard handle length for light axes is 40-60 cm, for heavy ones - from 55 to 65 cm. You can use an old ax to make a template. It is applied to cardboard and outlined with a pencil.
- Bar blank. From dried wood, a bar is prepared - a billet. The blank is made 10 cm larger than the calculated sizes. Extrusion is carried out along the wood fibers. From the side of the ax nozzle, the workpiece should be wider by 3 mm eyes. The template is applied to the wood, leaving an allowance of 9 cm from the tail, and 1 cm from the front and redrawing the contours. A tail allowance protects the handle from splitting when fitting a metal nozzle. At the end of the assembly, it is cut off.
- Extrusion. The bar must be further trimmed to the desired size. To do this, from the lower and upper parts make transverse cuts with a depth of 2 to 3 mm. They should not touch the contours of the ax. The excess part is removed with a chisel. Corners and bends are cut with a rasp. At the end of the work, everything is carefully sanded with sandpaper or a grinding machine.
A homemade product is impregnated with a protective agent, this will help protect the ax from decay. Impregnation is done in several layers of drying oil or linseed oil. Each subsequent layer should be completely saturated. Coating products with varnishes and paints is not recommended. They will give the handle a sliding effect, and the ax will constantly begin to slip out during operation. Sometimes a bright dye is added to the impregnation. The handle of the tool acquires a bright color, which is good when work is carried out on overgrown areas. The ax will always be visible and not lost.
Choosing a metal nozzle
You can’t forge metal tightly with your own hands, so they buy it at a hardware store. Tips for choosing a stitching part:
- A high-quality blade should be solid, without nicks, chips or dents.
- Metal is marked in accordance with GOST.
- The ends of the butt should be perpendicular to the blade.
- The eye must be conical in shape.
Ax Attack on Hatchet
The process is carried out in several stages, such as fitting, planting and wedging.
- Fitting. First of all, you need to try on how much the hatchet fits to the butt. The top on which the ax is mounted should narrow slightly. Between the wooden and the metal element, small slots should be obtained, the same on all sides. To correctly install the wedge, the wooden top of the future handle of the ax is sawn in the longitudinal direction.
- Nozzle. An ax is tightly planted on the butt. The excess wooden part that may appear after the nozzle is sawn off after wedging.
- Wedging. To work with an ax was safe, it must be wedged. This will securely fix the metal part of the ax on the wooden handle. A wedge with an acute angle is made of metal or strong wood. Then wetted with glue and driven into the butt. The pen is made to the maximum possible depth.
Eliminate cracks that occur when sticking a metal sheet can be using epoxy. It is poured into cuts before driving wedges. The resin will dry in a day. And only then you can saw off the protruding part.
Blade sharpening and hardening
The performance of a tool depends on a sharp blade. Therefore, you need to know how to sharpen an ax. For each type of work, its own blade processing angle is selected.
- Sharpening angle. To chop fresh wood, sharpening is carried out at an angle of 25 degrees. For dry wood - from 25 to 30 degrees.
- Bevel Width For good functional operation of the tool, in addition to the sharpening angle, a certain chamfer width is required. You cannot change the width yourself in the finished product, but you can grind it a bit. Stitching is done according to the double descent method, in which one angle has a slope of 15 degrees, the second - 25 degrees.
Sharpening is done on an electric grinding wheel, smoothly moving the blade along the circle at an angle of 45 degrees. To ensure that the quality of the cutting edge does not deteriorate, the blade must not be allowed to overheat. For this, a container with water is installed near the grinder. The blade is periodically lowered into it for cooling. At the end of the work, the grinding of the blade is done. To do this, use a whetstone or sandpaper.
A metal sheet made of soft material will often have to be sharpened. To avoid this, you can harden the ax. To do this, you need a gas burner, oil and water. The blade is heated on gas until red. Then it is immersed in oil and cold water. All repeat 3 times.