Among all vegetables, tomatoes stand out for their high growing conditions. They love light and heat, and the soil should be sufficiently moist. It is important that the moisture during irrigation does not fall on the leaves and fruits. Afraid of culture and cold dew. For these reasons, tomato cultivation is most successfully carried out in greenhouses.
Benefits of Greenhouse Tomato Growing
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse has many advantages. Plants are protected from precipitation and frost, the indoor climate is more favorable, the crop is plentiful. But in order for the tomatoes to feel good in the greenhouse, it is necessary to choose it correctly and correctly prepare the soil.
Greenhouse design selection criteria
There are several criteria for choosing a greenhouse design. Let's consider each of them.
- Material selection. Greenhouses can be film, polycarbonate or glass. The best option for tomatoes is a polycarbonate structure.
- Mounting method. The best option is a simple design with the possibility of multiple disassembly and installation.
- The construction of the building. The shape of the greenhouse can be any, but it is better to choose a simple one.
- The size. The greenhouse should not take up much space on the site, but at the same time it is better not to choose the size of the building end-to-end, but with a margin, because over time the number of tomatoes can grow.
- The frame of the greenhouse should be made of steel or aluminum. Aluminum is the preferred option since it does not rust.
Equipping a greenhouse for growing tomatoes
It’s important not only to choose the greenhouse design correctly, it is also necessary to create favorable conditions for growing plants in it.
Tomatoes make high demands on the level of lighting. It is necessary to think about it before planting the plants in the ground. If there is not enough light in the greenhouse, it is necessary to plant tomatoes with a large distance so that they do not obscure each other.
For year-round cultivation of tomatoes, you need to install a heating system for the greenhouse. It can be electric, steam, air or gas. The cheapest way is stove heating. In this case, a boiler is installed, which is heated by firewood. Installation of gas heating implies constant ventilation, and the electric way to maintain the optimum temperature in the greenhouse will cost a lot.
The optimal system for watering tomatoes is drip. You can bring droppers to each plant or use a drip tape. If you install special controllers, watering adjustment will occur automatically.
In the greenhouse, it is necessary to provide for good ventilation, therefore It is recommended that several wide vents be made in the design. This will save tomatoes from heat and pollen sterility. The vents are best placed at the top and bottom of the greenhouse.
The best varieties for growing indoors
The best varieties of tomatoes for growing in a greenhouse have the highest yields, taste, and disease resistance.
|Grade name||Main characteristics||Fruit quality||Disease and pest resistance|
|"Honey saved" (Honey spas)||Average ripening period, salad grade||The fruits are tasty, yellow, large||Resistance to cracking and disease|
|"Mushroom basket" (Fungus sporta)||Indeterminate variety, bush height 2.5 m||Fruits are large, red, ribbed||Medium disease resistance|
|Black Moor (Nigrum μαῦρον)||Bush height 1.3 m||Fruits are rounded, smooth, chocolate red||Medium disease resistance|
|The Pink Leader (Rosea dux)||Early ripening variety, early ripening, bush height - up to 1 m||Fruits are red, sweetish||Medium disease resistance|
|Fontanka||Early ripening grade, bush up to 50 cm high||Fruits of red color, from the bush you can collect up to 45 pieces|
Good disease resistance
|Cottager||The bush is low - up to 50 cm||Fruits are red, rounded, small||Good frost resistance|
|Cardinal||The bush reaches a height of up to 170 cm||Tasty fruits, raspberry, juicy pulp||Medium disease resistance|
|"Russian soul" (Russian anima)||The bush reaches a height of 1.5 m||Fruits are red, large, can be used for salads and canning||Medium disease resistance|
|"Monomakh Hat" (Pilleum Monomakh)||Harvest variety, from one square. m you can collect up to 14 kg of tomatoes||The fruits are delicious, aromatic||Good disease resistance|
|Canadian Gigas||Tall plant - up to 1.5 m||Fruits slightly flattened, large, with acidity||Good disease resistance|
Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse
Tomatoes are a well-known and ubiquitous vegetable crop. Gardeners often encounter problems growing it. Consider the technology of planting tomato seeds in more detail.
Tomato seeds can be planted both dry and after soaking. Pre-soaked material rises faster. Before sowing, seeds must be carefully sorted, all defective (empty) discarded. The empty seeds can be determined as follows: all seeds are placed in saline for 15 minutes; those that have surfaced are not suitable for sowing. The rest should be washed with running water and can be sown.
Soaking seeds is as follows:
- On a plate put a wet napkin, seeds on top.
- So that the water does not evaporate, the container is covered with a lid, everything is left for a day.
- Seeds that are swollen can be planted.
Several types of soil are suitable for growing tomatoes. It can be turf and humus land or a purchased mixture. The soil for seedlings should be loose and light, peat and sawdust will help to achieve such a consistency.
Timing and landing scheme
The best time to grow seedlings is mid-March. Seeds should be planted in shallow holes, sprinkled with earth on top. Germination of seeds in a greenhouse depends on the variety of tomatoes and temperature. At 20 degrees Celsius, seedlings appear after 15 days.
Only 50-day-old seedlings can be planted in an unheated greenhouse. Such plants have a height of about 30 cm and have 7-8 leaves.
Tomatoes in a greenhouse: care details
In the greenhouse, seedlings are placed on beds 100 cm wide. They should be strengthened with boards to prevent the shedding of land. Between the bushes leave 40 cm, between the beds - 60 cm. If a tall tomato variety is planted, then these figures will reach 50 and 70 cm, respectively.
Features of greenhouse tomato care
As soon as the first shoots have ascended, they should be provided with proper care. Only in this way you will get a good harvest.
Features of watering
Watering the seeds should be minimal, otherwise tomato sprouts will quickly rot. When the first leaves appear, watering can be made more frequent - up to once every five days. If the soil is dry, periodically spray it with water. Adult tomatoes are rarely watered, but abundantly.
How to feed
Top dressing in the soil is best done in the fall. If the land is peaty, well-decomposed compost or sand should be added to it. Most (60%) should be peat, sand and compost should be 20% each. To the loamy soil of compost you need to add more, up to 50%.
During the autumn digging, 500-800 g of ammonium nitrate, 3-4 kg of ash and the same amount of superphosphate per cubic meter of soil are added to the soil.
If fertilizers have not been applied since the fall, before planting seedlings in the hole, you can add complex fertilizer and ash. About 3 tablespoons of fertilizer and about half a glass of ash are taken. Then each well must be carefully watered - it will take about 5 liters of water per hole.
The formation of tomato bushes
The formation of a tomato bush is carried out by the method of pinching, which involves the removal of excess shoots in the axils of the leaf and pinching of the apex. The procedure is necessary so that the tomatoes do not grow. It is not necessary to pinch low-growing tomatoes, only tall varieties are subject to this operation!
Stepsons are called shoots formed in the sinuses between the leaves and the main stem (on which the first flower brush was formed). Eliminate these shoots when they reach a length of 7 cm. The first time stepchildren are removed 2 weeks after planting seedlings. Repeat the procedure with an interval of 12 days.
To tie up tomatoes, you need stakes or rods, a wide garter material and wire. As a garter material, it is better to use a fabric whose width is 3 cm. Often kapron tights or socks are used. You can purchase special plastic devices for garter - they are reusable and will serve more than one season. The tying process is very simple - a stake is installed next to the tomato, which is mounted on a wire to the wall or roof of the greenhouse. The plant is attached to the stake with garter material.
How to normalize ovaries
Rationing of ovaries of tomatoes is necessary so that in August all the fruits have time to ripen. If this is not done, tomatoes that have reached technical maturity will not ripen, and the bush may become infected with late blight. The rationing technology is simple - all inflorescences where the fruits have not formed are removed. If the embryos on the branch froze in development, they are also eliminated.
Pest and disease protection
Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology and careful care will protect tomatoes from diseases and pests. Since ventilation in the greenhouse may be insufficient, it is important to carry out preventive work to protect the vegetable from late blight (Phytophthora cactorum), mosaics (Alfalfa mosaic), root rot (Radix putrescat), wireworms (Elateridae), garden scoops (Polia oleracea L.), greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). For this, agricultural techniques are used:
- room ventilation;
- crop rotation;
- removal of diseased leaves;
- weed control.
Also, in order to protect against diseases, chemical methods are used:
- spraying plants with copper chloride and Bordeaux liquid;
- disinfection of instruments;
- seed dressing;
- soil change or disinfection.
It is important to note that the emergence of diseases contribute to severe temperature extremes. High humidity also does not benefit tomatoes.
How to pinch tomatoes
To get an excellent tomato crop in a greenhouse, you have to try. It will be necessary to properly prepare the seeds and soil, choose the right greenhouse and take good care of the plants.