Hydrangea is a beautiful flowering shrub, popular among gardeners in the world. The scientific name HYDRANGEA comes from the Greek "hydor" and "aggeion" - respectively, "water" and "vessel". The genus includes 35 species that grow in East Asia, South, North America.
Why is hydrangea so named
The history of the name of the flower is quite interesting and is associated with the participants of the 1st round-the-world French expedition led by Louis-Antoine de Bougainville.
In 1768, the expedition sailed to the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. The crew settled on the island for a long vacation. Philibert Commerson, a naturalist and physician, settled in the magnificent estate of Poitre, who runs the island. The company was made up of Jean-Henri Bernard de Saint-Pierre, a military engineer, passionate about botany and Madame Poitre, a beautiful young woman who loved flowers and wore airy outfits. Madame Pauvre preferred pink, white and blue.
One day, two men walked in a park, where they found an unknown flowering shrub from which an engineer for Madame Pauvre made bouquets. This plant was brought from China and bloomed with blue or pink inflorescence balls. Commerson, seeing the bush, realized that this was a new species for Europe, decided to name it in honor of St. Pierre's lover.
That day, Prince Nassau-Siegen, a member of the expedition, the future Russian admiral, walked in the park. He talked about the beautiful sister of Hortense, showed her portrait. Commerson, wishing to distinguish himself, proposed to name the Chinese flower after the prince’s sister. It so happened that instead of pauvria, the shrub was called hydrangea.
Later, botanists, scientists, was given the scientific name of the flower - Hydrangea (Hydrangea), emphasizing the plant's love of moisture.
How to plant hydrangea
Common Types of Hydrangeas
It is found in Japan, China, in southern Sakhalin. It grows in sparse thin oak forests, on the edges of forests.
It is a shrub or tree up to 10 m in size. The crown is thick, round, leaves are elliptical or ovoid, 12 cm long. The leaves are pubescent, moreover from below than from above. Flowers form pan-pyramidal panicles, up to 25 cm long. On the branches that form the fruits, the flowers are small, white, the petals quickly fall off. Non-fruiting flowers are larger, with white petals that later turn pink.
Flowers are honey plants, appear from the age of 4 of the bush. Hydrangea blooms from June to October.
Box fruit ripens in October. It is small, 3 mm long, the apex is cracked. Inside there are many very small seeds. Seeds have a high - 95% - viability.
The bush grows quickly, is quite frost-resistant, prefers fertile soils, moist.
The plant is durable, survives up to 60 years.
Several varieties of this species are widely used:
- "Unique" is distinguished by large flowers, long flowering, pleasant aroma;
- "Brussels Lace" is decorative thanks to a large number of fruit-bearing flowers, a very delicate variety;
- "Grandiflora" - late blooms, flowers are large, collected in pyramidal inflorescences are very large, up to 30 cm long; the flowers bloom creamy white, then become pure white, later turn pink, fall greenish red in the fall; from this variety beautiful dry bouquets are obtained;
- "Kyushu" grows up to 3 m., The diameter of the crown is the same, the shape of the crown is fan-shaped; shoots of this variety are hard, red-brown, leaves are dark green with red petioles, white flowers emit a pleasant smell, rather large, collected in wide and long inflorescences; the grade is frost-resistant;
- "Matilda" - a bush with a rounded crown and dull green leaves; large flowers change color, like the Grandiflora variety, forming inflorescences 25 cm long;
- "Pink Diamond" - a fashionable variety in Europe; the flowers are creamy white at first, then dark pink, almost red;
- "Presox" has the earliest flowering time, bred in Japan;
- Floribunda is a shrub with very large, rounded, barren flowers on long pedicels.
A direct growing shrub found in eastern North America. Low, usually 1, rarely 3 m tall. The crown of this species is round, shoots are somewhat pubescent, leaves are bare, ovoid or elliptical.
The margin at the leaflets is serrated, at the base - a heart-shaped notch. The top of the leaves is green, the bottom is bluish. Thyroid inflorescences consist of larger infertile and small prolific flowers. First blooms in 4 years. The fruits are a small box of 3 mm.
Tree hydrangea is characterized by rapid growth, while, as noted, it is demanding on the fertility of the soil and its moisture. It tolerates soil with the presence of lime better than other varieties.
The plant is propagated by cuttings, which are almost 100% rooted after processing them with a solution of indolyl butyric acid. More simple is the propagation by layering. To do this, spring in the spring they bend the shoot to the ground, lay it in a specially dug ditch 8-10 cm deep.
The upper part of the shoot is gently bent up (preferably at an angle of 45 degrees) and sprinkled with earth.
The soil must be maintained regularly in a wet and loose state. The rooted young plant next spring secateurs are carefully separated from the uterine and transplanted together with a lump of earth.
Tree hydrangea is a wonderful ornamental plant for single and group plantings. It goes well with roses, lilies, clematis, looks great in combinations and compositions with shrubs and trees.
The most famous varieties of this shrub:
- "Annabel" - a shrub with a wide-spreading crown, characterized in that the foliage remains green in the fall, fast growth and beautiful white flowers that gather in large inflorescences;
- Grandiflora - abundantly and continuously flowering variety growing up to 2 m and having a crown with a diameter of up to 3 m; light green leaves are very large - up to 16 cm in length, flowers - creamy white;
- "Sterilis" differs in long and plentiful blossoming; inflorescences are so thick and heavy that bend the branches; whitish green flowers initially become pure white.
Grows in mountain mixed forests in northern China.
This is a deciduous shrub with a wide rounded crown. The shoots are reddish-brown, the bark exfoliates with thin plates, covered with hairs. The leaves are ovate, 12 cm long, the tip is sharp, the base is wedge-shaped. The foliage is dark green, on top the leaves are bare, hairy below. In the fall they turn yellow-brown.
Flowers, white at the beginning, by the end of summer become reddish or purple. They form an umbrella-shaped wide inflorescences. One inflorescence contains up to 500 flowers, which bloom in late July. To give the flowers a blue color, they are watered with a solution of alum.
Groundcover hydrangea is propagated by seeds, offspring, green cuttings, and also by dividing the bush. Of all the species, this is the most drought-tolerant, winter-hardy. Even in Arkhangelsk winters quietly under the snow. In the Urals, the shrub can freeze, but in the spring it quickly recovers. It blooms profusely, annually, due to which it is highly decorative.
It grows to 3 m. The shoots of this species are chestnut-brown, hairy. The ovoid leaves have denticles along the edges, in the summer they are dark green, yellow-brown in the fall.
Bretschneider’s flowers are milky white. The barren flowers are greenish at first, then become milky white, after which they acquire a purple hue.
About 500 flowers form large umbrella shields. The bush blooms annually and abundantly in June-August. After cutting, flowers can be dried and used for bouquets during the winter.
This species is usually propagated by cuttings and seeds. May seeds are sown in a greenhouse or room. After 30 days, the seeds germinate. Seedlings grow 10-30 cm per year.
Green petioles are very convenient to propagate the Bretschneider hydrangea, because they are well rooted even without treatment with stimulants. This species is frost and drought tolerant, tolerates good partial shade.
Shrub with felt reddish shoots. Very unusual bush leaves. They are not solid, as in other species, but 3-7 lobed, resembling oak leaves. The base of the leaves is wedge-shaped, almost truncated. The top of the leaf is dark green, bare, the underside is pubescent, white-faded. Paniculate inflorescences consist of many white flowers, which are about 3 cm in size. When the plant fades, the color changes to purple. In September, box fruits ripen.
Tinned hydrangea requires rich, light soils, moist, without lime.
It is highly regarded in decorative gardening because of the peculiar shape of the leaves, as well as because of large inflorescences.
It grows in eastern North America in the forests along the slopes of the mountains. This is an erect shrub with pubescent shoots. The leaves are pointed to the apex, at the base are rounded or semi-heart-shaped. The edges of the leaves are serrated, the surface is bare, dark green, the lower part of the leaf is white-pubescent pubescent, has a mesh venation. Inflorescences are in the form of a shield, along the edges there are many white sterile flowers with a diameter of up to 3 cm. Flowers appear in early July and until mid-August. By the end of September, the fruits ripen.
Radiant hydrangea is not very frost-resistant, but after freezing it quickly recovers, and flowers appear on the overgrown annual shoots. It is recommended to cover the roots with dry foliage for the winter.
Originally from North America. This is an upright shrub with pubescent shoots. Leaves 6-15 cm long, pointed to the apex, rounded or gray at the base. The edge of the leaves is serrate, the surface is bright green, the bottom is gray-felt, pubescent. Inflorescences are corymbose, 20 cm in diameter. It blooms in July-September. Thanks to long flowering, it is an excellent ornamental shrub. At the same time, ashen hydrangea is winter-hardy, and although in severe winters the shoots often freeze, the bush is restored very quickly. The next year, the plant blooms again and bears fruit on new shoots. Usually propagated by cuttings, which are easily rooted without treatment with various stimulants. It responds well to mineral dressing by watering in dry weather. Faded inflorescences should be removed annually. Dried shoots with flowers look beautiful in dry winter bouquets. In summer, hydrangeas are decorated with lively growing hedges, especially beautiful needles against a dark green background. Also looks spectacular in open areas in group landings.
Low shrub, usually a meter and a half in size.
Shoots of this species can be naked or pubescent. Leaflets are ovoid, also elliptical, with a sharp apex and margin on both sides. Hydrangea is beautiful with white and blue flowers in the shields, the middle flowers are small, also blue or white, pink. It differs with other types of changes in the color of flowers depending on the acidity of the soil. It blooms from July, sometimes until September, in October the fruits ripen. Very demanding on soil and its moisture. Usually propagated by cuttings.
For winter it is recommended to cover with paper, dry leaves, spruce branches.
From East Asia came to us Hydrangea Sageta (Нydrangea sargentiana Rehder). This species differs from others in unusually large leaves, very pubescent, dark green, up to 25 cm long. At the top, the leaves are pointed, rounded or semi-heart-shaped at the base. Coarse, hairs on them thick, rough, bristly, almost prickly.
In winter, this shrubbery loses all that is above-ground, and next year grows again by 0.8-1 m. At the same time, it blooms annually in July. Her flowers are pale purple (bearing fruit) and white (sterile), the latter are located on the periphery of the corymbose inflorescence. The fruits ripen in the warm autumn in October. The plant begins to bloom and bear fruit from the age of 13. Dying shoots must be cut off annually. For winter, cover the roots with spruce branches or fallen dry leaves. Planting this species is recommended in sunny, well-lit places. The soil needs to be moist.
The birthplace of the plant is Asia, where it can be found in the Himalayas, Taiwan, Indonesia, and central China. This is a deciduous shrub with a straight trunk, branched, lignified at the base. The foliage is velvety, purple-green. Leaflets oblong, with pubescence. On last year’s branches, on the tops, at the end of summer, large rounded inflorescences of lilac-blue color bloom.
Rough hydrangea prefers fertile soil, neutral or slightly acidic. The place must be protected, does not like hydrangea in direct sunlight. In spring, a third of the shoots need to be cut at ground level.
Hydrangea climbing or petiolate
It grows in the range of the island East Asian type: in Japan, Korea, Russia on South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands. It is found in dense and sparse forests.
Climbing hydrangea is a lianoid bush. She has a lot of aerial roots, there are suckers, with their help the bush is attached to the bark of trees and sometimes climbs up to 25 m in height. If there is no support nearby, then the plant spreads on the ground. This is the only species used as a groundcover.
In petiole hydrangea, leaves on long petioles are wide-ovate, 8-centimeter long, the base is pointed or cordate. The foliage is smooth, shiny, dark green. Thyroid-shaped inflorescences are formed from white-pink flowers, inflorescences are loose, 20 cm in diameter. In prolific flowers, the petals at the top are fused. Climbing hydrangea is a good honey plant.
Hydrangea is very demanding on the soil, which must be fertile. Prefers wet loam. The first years it grows very slowly, it is even surprising how much later it grows. It tolerates partial shade, however, abundant flowering occurs only in open, illuminated places. Propagate the plant by cuttings, layering.
When decorating with climbing hydrangea, the greatest effect is achieved when it covers as large a surface as possible with its branches with dark green shiny leaves. To stimulate dense branching, the plant is pruned. If the shrub is used as a groundcover, then pruning is usually not needed, the support is also not needed. In this case, dead, diseased, damaged shoots are removed. With vertical gardening, a rapidly growing plant is intensively cut so that the vertical growth and branching are in the right ratio. In this case, the stems must be tied up, guided and cut, to stimulate the formation of lateral shoots. We recommend that you read the material on the preparation of ornamental shrubs for winter.
Propagation of hydrangea is carried out by the method of harvesting cuttings from root shoots. The procedure is carried out at the end of January or February: the cuttings obtained during this period give bushes by autumn. If you plant in March or April, you will get only single-stemmed seedlings.
To propagate the plants, the stems are cut directly at the base. Each harvesting should have three internodes about 7 cm long. The lower leaves of the plant are removed, and the rest of the foliage is cut in half. A straight cut is performed 4 cm below the internodes.
Ready cuttings are planted in the soil, consisting of a mixture of sand and peat. During the first four months, planting is not obscured.Cuttings take root in about a month, after which they are transplanted into pots with peat, and at the end of spring frosts - to a permanent place, at a distance of 30x40 m from each other. After planting, the soil must be mulched so that it does not lose moisture. Planting care is to remove weeds, watering and loosening the soil. In autumn, with the onset of cold weather, plants are transferred to the greenhouse.
Hydrangea is also propagated by shoots, layering and dividing the bush.
The main mistakes when growing a flower
Although hydrangea is easy to grow, it may not bloom. This happens when gardeners make certain mistakes. To understand what is the reason, you need to pay attention to the following points:
- whether the flower acclimatization went well: if there was not enough heat or light, hydrangea will not be able to develop correctly;
- if the flower has enough moisture;
- whether the upper parts of last year's branches were trimmed, and if the flower bud was not damaged;
- whether the roots are well developed: flowering begins only after the root system is strengthened.
Diseases and Pests
If you take care of hydrangea correctly, no problems should arise during its cultivation. But with incorrect agricultural technology, a plant can be affected by various diseases and pests described in the table.
|Title||Signs of defeat||Control measures|
|Powdery Mildew (Pulveream rubigo)||White coating on stems and buds||Treatment of the flower with Fundazol, removal of the affected parts of the plant|
|Downy mildew (Rubigo downy)||Dark oily spots on leaves and stems||Flower processing with the preparations "Fundazol", "Chistotsvet"|
|Rust fungi||Rusty spots on the leaves||The use of copper oxychloride, the drug "Topaz"|
|Aphid (Aphid)||Sugar discharge on foliage, leaf fall||Use of Tanrek, tobacco dust, leaf treatment with soap and water|
|Slugs||Damaged holes and holes in the tissues of the plant||Mechanical removal of slugs, treatment of plants with Thunderstorm|
|Spider mite (Aranea minutum reddas)||Small yellow spots on the back of the leaves||Processing with preparations "Vermitek", "Lightning"|
What is hydrangea combined with in the garden?
Ideal partners for the flower are hosts (Exercitus), ferns (Fern), astilbe (Artemisia) and buzulniki (Primula). Hydrangea also looks great against the background of cereal plants, goes well with Carmichael aconites (Carmichael) and Arends. A good tandem is obtained from her with colchicum (Crocus).
Hydrangea can be a great backdrop for many plants, but only at a certain height. Optimal in this sense is the Kyushu variety, whose flowers reach a length of 2 meters. Against their background, any mixborder looks great.
Other tall variants are Levana and N. paniculata Taiwanform varieties (this variety is also interesting for its corollas, reminiscent of a swarm of butterflies).
It is allowed to use hydrangea in a mixborder, but it is worth remembering that the plant is characterized by rapid growth, and it will have to be cut periodically. But to create hedges, this quality of hydrangea fits perfectly.
Hydrangea: growing and care
Panicled forms of hydrangea look great in the array, but they can also be grown on the stem. In this case, groundcover roses (Surgens), a cuff (Alchemilla) or Cossack juniper (Cossack iuniperorum) can become neighbors for a flower. In general, it’s easy to grow hydrangea in the garden. With careful care, it will delight you with its flowering for a long time.